Urinary bladder is made up of 3 layers. Mucosa, submucosa and muscularis. The submucosa layer is rich in blood vessels and nerves. Bladder cancer is the abnormal and uncontrolled multiplication of cells in the inner lining of the urinary bladder, which in severe cases spreads to the submucosa layer. Cancer that invades to this layer easily spreads to other organs through blood.
Causes of Bladder Cancer
It is estimated that more than half of all the bladder cancer is caused by tobacco smoking.
Workers at the dye, textile, leather, paint and rubber industry are exposed to chemical substances that increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. It can take about 30years for cancer to develop after the initial exposure to these chemicals.
Exposure of cells to radiation for a long period of time, results in some mutations (changes with the cells) that leads to cancer.
Long term history of Repeated Infections
Repeated infections irritate the bladder lining leading to cancerous transformation of cells.
Symptoms of Bladder Cancer
- Blood in urine
- Frequent urination
- Pain or burning upon urination
- Weak urine stream
Diagnosing Bladder Cancer
A thin, long tube with a camera at its end is inserted through the urethra and the internal surface of the bladder is observed for any abnormal growth. If noted, a small portion of tissue is taken and sent for histopathological examination.
A dye is injected through the veins and using X Rays, the urinary system is evaluated.
Gives a detailed picture of the bladder and surrounding organs. Any spread of cancer can be identified using this imaging technique.
Treatments for Bladder Cancer
Medical treatment can first be started in order to shrink the size of tumor. Thereafter Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in cancer that has not yet spread to other organs.
- Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) is a scarless procedure used to treat bladder tumors that are small and do not involve the muscle layers.
- Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy is another procedure which is preferred for larger and more advanced tumors, in which the muscle layers are involved. In this procedure, the bladder is removed and replaced by a neo(new) bladder which is created from the bowel loops.
- Avoid smoking.
- Ensure safety precautions at workplace.
- Studies show that diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low in fat helps prevent bladder cancer.
All Cancer Surgeries through Lap
Dr. Ilamparuthi Chennakrishnan
GENITO- URINARY SURGEON
M.B.B.S., M.S. (General surgery), M.Ch. (Urology), D.N.B. (GUS), F.I.C.S.