Colorectal Cancer

Cancer in the colon and rectum are called as colorectal cancer. Most colon cancers originate from small, non-cancerous tumors.
Colon and Rectum are the last part of large intestine. Usually stool is stored in colon. During excretion, stool moves from colon to rectum.

Cancer at different sites of the colon

Causes of Colorectal cancer

The real cause is not yet known, but there are some risk factors:


Polyps are a collection of abnormal cells in the inner wall of the colon. Sometimes these polyps form on the inner walls of the large bowel. Mostly they are not harmful. But sometimes they can develop into a cancer. Some of these polyps may grow into malignant colon cancers over time if they are not removed during colonoscopy. Those cells will invade and damage healthy tissue that is near the tumor causing many complications.

  • Genetic

    Genetic changes in colorectal cells can cause some conditions like familial adenomatous polyposis, attenuated adenomatous polyposis, and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer.

  • Ageing and Food habits

    Those who are more than 50 years old are at risk for getting colorectal cancer. Foods that have low fibre, high fat and red meat are also riskier predisposing factors for older people.

  • Medical conditions

    Diabetes, Acromegly, Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are other medical conditions which have a risk for getting colon cancer.

Symptoms of colorectal cancer

The following symptoms are common with colorectal cancer in both men and women:

  • Blood in stool
  • Nonstop diarrhea for more than few days
  • Constipation
  • Weight loss/gain without any intention
  • May look pale (anemic)
  • Narrow stools (looks like a pencil).
  • Change in stool (smells and looks different)
  • Gas bloating
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Feels tired and weak

Diagnosing colorectal cancer

Physical examination

The doctor may examine your stomach and checks the rectum with one finger. This method is called as digital rectal examination


  1. Proctoscopy- If he is suspecting cancer in the rectum he might perform a proctoscopy. Proctoscope is a instrument used to visualise your anal cavity, rectum or sigmoid colon. A tissue sample may be taken for viewing in a microscope.
  2. Colonoscopy- In this procedure a flexible tube is inserted via the rectum to look at the colon. A tissue sample may be taken. A colonoscopy helps your doctor to find ulcers, polyps, tumors and areas of inflammation (swelling) or bleeding.

Ras Gene test

You might be examined for a gene called Ras, and some other genes. Those genes tell us the effect of a treatment. They also help us to know if your family may have a higher cancer incidence.


Treatments for colorectal cancer

Surgical Treatments

The surgery done for colon cancer is Laparoscopic colectomy. The affected part of colon is removed in this procedure.

Abdomino Perineal Resection is a procedure done to remove the cancer in lower rectum.

Using keyholes, and new stapler machines, we can avoid a stoma (or bag with motion passage). These cancer operations are known as sphincter saving resections. LIMA specializes in these.


Remember colorectal cancer is reversible and curable. There is evidence that a healthy diet can reduce the risk for a colorectal cancer:

  • Consume more fruits and vegetables
  • Food that is low in fat and high in fiber
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Maintain a good weight
  • Keep your blood sugar level in control

LIMA Experience

Speciality Center

All Cancer Surgeries through Laparoscopy

Laparoscopic Colectomy Specialists

Dr. J. S. Rajkumar


M.S., F.I.C.S., Dip. N.B. (SURG.), F.R.C.S. (ENG.), F.R.C.S. (EDIN.), F.R.C.S. (GLASGOW), F.R.C.S. (IRELAND), F.I.M.S., F.A.I.S., F.R.M.S. (LONDON), F.A.E. (GASTRO), F.A.C.G. (USA), F.I.C.A. (USA), F.I.A.G.E.S., Dip M.I.S. (FR.)

Dr. Anirudh Rajkumar

Bariatric and Laparoscopic Surgeon