Hepatocellular Cancer

Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a disease that affects your liver. Liver is the largest organ of your body. It’s in the upper part of the tummy (abdomen) on the right-hand side under your lower ribs.
Cancer cells arising from liver is called as primary liver cancer. HCC is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Also this is probably the commonest cancer in the world.

Liver cancer


There are plenty of causes for HCC. Few of them are listed below:

Hepatitis B & C

Hepatitis B and C are two viruses that get into the liver and irritate the liver cells constantly. This in a long term causes the cancer of the liver.

  • Chronic Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is one of the major causes of HCC.

  • Hemochromatosis

    Iron gets deposted in the liver cells and causes chronic irritation. This, on long run, can cause HCC.

  • Non- Alcohoilc fatty liver

    Obesity can cause fatty liver in some people, which can be a risk for causing HCC.

Symptoms of hepatocellular cancer

At early stages of liver cancer, patients usually don’t experience any symptoms at all. Some usually experienced symptoms are listed below:

  • Pain at the right side of abdomen below the ribs
  • Bloating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Skin and whites of your eyes gets yellow (Jaundice)
  • Whitish stools and dark urine
  • Diagnosing hepatocellular cancer

    Physical examination

    Your doctor will ask you a detailed history of your illness and then examine you thoroughly.

    Blood test

    Your doctor may collect a blood sample and check for something called AFP in it. If your blood has AFP in it, it might be a sign of liver cancer.

    Imaging studies

    An ultrasound study of abdomen might help your doctor to see the texture of liver. Its a simple and inexpensive test to perform.

    Liver biopsy

    Your doctor may want to remove a sample of your liver tissue and check it under a microscope for cancer cells. A small cut is made in your belly and a needle is inserted into the liver to take out a sample of it. You will be given anesthesia before the procedure. So its a painless procedure.

    Treatments for heptocellular cancer

    Surgical Treatments

    If found out early enough, surgery either in the form of liver resection (hepatic resection) or liver transplant will be curative for these patients.This is done through keyholes in our center.


    There is no actual prevention for HCC. But preventing some risk factors might be helpful:

    • Diet and exercise to reduce obesity.
    • Lifestyle changes like quitting alcoholism.
    • Getting hepatitis vaccines if indicated to prevent from hepatitis viruses.

    LIMA Experience

    One of the few specialized centers in India performing Laparoscopic Hepatic Resection

    Lap Hepatic Resection Specialists

    Dr. J. S. Rajkumar


    M.S., F.I.C.S., Dip. N.B. (SURG.), F.R.C.S. (ENG.), F.R.C.S. (EDIN.), F.R.C.S. (GLASGOW), F.R.C.S. (IRELAND), F.I.M.S., F.A.I.S., F.R.M.S. (LONDON), F.A.E. (GASTRO), F.A.C.G. (USA), F.I.C.A. (USA), F.I.A.G.E.S., Dip M.I.S. (FR.)

    Dr. Prabhakaran Raju

    Consultant Surgical Gastroenterolgy M.B.B.S., M.S (GENERAL SURGERY), Mch(SGE)

    Dr. C.M.K. Reddy

    Consultant General & Vascular Surgeon – M.B.B.S., DSc., F.R.C.S. (GLAS), F.R.C.S., F.R.S.H (Eng), F.I.C.S, F.I.C.A (USA)